Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors for Homology-Directed Generation of CAR-T Cells


Immunotherapy with T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) is an emerging and promising treatment against refractory cancers. However, the currently adopted methods of modification of T cells pose a risk of insertional oncogenesis because lentiviral and retroviral vectors integrate the CAR transgene in a semi-random fashion. In addition, this therapy is only available using autologous cells, which create problems in production and limit the access for patients who had their T cells depleted. One modification method that shows the ability to overcome both drawbacks is the knock-in of the CAR simultaneously knocking-out genes that prevent allogeneic therapy, such as the endogenous T cell receptor. In this mini-review, we present recent efforts to develop safer universal CAR-T cells. More specifically, we focus on the combined application of target-directed nucleases, which create a double-strand break at a specific genome locus, and the delivery of CAR DNA via adeno-associated viral vectors for subsequent integration via homologous recombination and silencing of the targeted gene. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Biotechnology Journal